The gratifying results of lung transplantation in terms of survival and quality of life stimulate the referral of an ever-increasing number of patients with end-stage lung disease. This in turn compounds the organ shortage, which is the limiting factor in the transplantation rate. In the absence of good alternative treatment modalities, an evidence-based pretransplant screening process is a prerequisite to determine which patients will benefit most from transplantation. Within this evidence-based screening process, medical selection criteria are well established. There is a growing awareness that psychosocial and behavioural factors may determine outcome after transplantation as well. This paper reviews the available evidence for psychosocial and behavioural factors in the screening process for lung transplantation. The relation of various factors with post-transplant outcome was explored. Psychosocial characteristics before transplantation consist of 1) anxiety and depression, 2) personality disorders, 3) neurocognitive problems, and 4) lack of social support. Pretransplant behavioural factors include 1) noncompliance with medication, 2) alcohol abuse or dependence, 3) smoking, 4) noncompliance with dietary guidelines, and 5) noncompliance with monitoring of vital parameters and infections. It appears that the lack of rigorous studies limit the feasibility of an evidence-based screening process. Prospective studies are crucial to this further investigation of the relationship between psychosocial and behavioural determinants before transplantation and outcomes after transplantation, in terms of compliance, morbidity, and mortality. Identification of modifiable risk factors for poor outcome before transplantation is a first step in developing interventions.