In 2002-03, the Belgian government subsidized in part the activities of local Antibiotic Managers (AMs) in 36 hospitals selected based on the presence of an operational multidisciplinary Antibiotic Management Team (AMT). AMs were trained as Internists (28), Microbiologists (13) and Hospital Pharmacists (13).The hospitals were representative of Belgian hospitals in affiliation, regional origin and size. The financing scheme allowed the implementation of 175 antibiotic management interventions, with a mean of 5 interventions/hospital. The activities reported in the first 9-month progress reports were analyzed according to national guidelines for AMTs. All hospitals irrespective of size or affiliation had undertaken a wide range of measures: review of formulary (29), implementation of new clinical guidelines (24), restricted access to selected antibiotics (25), improvement of antibiotic susceptibility testing methods (12), development of antibiotic consumption database (35) and analysis of antibacterial susceptibility data (31). Advertisement type categorization of communication methods showed that education of prescribers was based on multimodal communication. All hospitals used at least one passive method, 39% at least one active method and 55% at least one personalized method. The quality of communication was higher in hospitals with teaching affiliation. In conclusion, hospitals that received a financial incentive under theAMT pilot phase have developed multimodal antibiotic policy interventions independently of the hospital size and teaching status. Extension to all Belgian hospitals appears warranted. The impact of AMTs and AMs on the quality of use of antibiotics and trends of antibiotic resistance and cost will be monitored based on standardized indicators.