Advances in renal replacement therapy vol:9 issue:4 pages:282-9
Fluid composition and management are important parts of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Most commercially available CRRT solutions are able to reestablish electrolyte homeostasis provided some phosphate supplementation is given. Supraphysiologic glucose concentrations should be avoided. Predilution fluid replacement allows higher ultrafiltration rates and can be considered as an adjunct to the anticoagulation regimen. Lactate is an effective buffer in most CRRT patients. Bicarbonate is preferred in patients with lactic acidosis and/or liver failure. When citrate is used as anticoagulant, frequent monitoring of pH is required. The clinical consequences of CRRT-induced decreases of body temperature are not clear. Substitution fluid should be sterile, but the bacteriologic requirements for CRRT dialysate are less clear. There is no consensus on the optimal parameters to monitor fluid management. Integrated balancing systems have theoretical advantages over adaptive use of intravenous fluid pumps. Although there is evidence that volume overload is associated with adverse outcome, there is no evidence that fluid removal per se improves outcome in critically ill patients with or without acute renal failure.