Infectious diseases of wild mammals edition:3 pages:223-231
Papillomas or warts are easily recognized skin or mucous membrane tumors. They are common in wild species and are particularly well known in deer (Cosgrove and Fay 1981; Sundberg and Nielson 1981). Most of these tumors are caused by papillomaviruses (PVs). Tumors can become quite large and numerous and persist for prolonged periods, but they usually regress, providing the individual with long-term immunity to future infections. Occasionally, the tumors will progress to squamous cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, or sebaceous carcinoma that will eventually kill the host if not treated. Specific mucosotropic PV types and those infecting immunodeficient individuals are prone to induce malignancies. Virtually all mammalian species are hosts for one of more PV. This chapter provides an overview of PV infections in mammals.