Medical & biological engineering & computing vol:28 issue:3 pages:217-224
The paper presents and compares three methods making use of the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a matrix to extract the foetal electrocardiogram (FECG) from cutaneously recorded electrode signals. The first method constructs a set of orthogonal foetal signals (the so-called principal foetal signals) from the recordings, but needs electrode positions far from the foetal heart, in addition to the abdominal electrodes that pick up a mixture of maternal and foetal electrocardiogram. An online adaptive algorithm has been developed such that a real-time implementation becomes feasible. The second method is a new online approach to a technique presented by van Oosterom. Although this method has some important drawbacks and is suboptimal as far as foetal signal-to-noise ratio is concerned, it is still very useful when only a foetal trigger is required, as the signal obtained is not a complete FECG. Finally, a third method is proposed, based on the generalised SVD and interpreted with the new concept of oriented signal-to-signal ratio. An online version is also presented for this method and some results are shown.