Three lipid analysis methods were applied to extracts of archaeological potsherds from the ancient city of Sagalassos, south-west Turkey. In the fatty acid methyl ester fraction, obtained by selective transesterification of acylglycerols, the ratio of methyl palmitate to methyl stearate was determined. Secondly, by means of gas chromatography- combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS), stable carbon isotope ratios were measured for the same methyl esters. Finally, triglyceride composition was determined via high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). All three methods can be used to trace the origin of animal fat. Agreement between them is reasonable, especially in recognizing ruminant adipose fat. One sample was found to be of dairy origin using both GC-C-IRMS and HPLC-MS. The advantages of the various methods are discussed. Variations in lipid composition were observed between samples from different periods and excavated in diverse areas within the city of Sagalassos.