Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals vol:29 issue:10 pages:1349-54
Because of the evidence for the involvement of xenobiotic bioactivation in pulmonary toxicity and carcinogenesis, it is important to improve our understanding of the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in isolated and cultured specific pulmonary cell populations. Some phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities, reduced glutathione (GSH), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) were studied in rat type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages cultured for up to 48 h and 3 h, respectively. In type II pneumocytes, 7-ethoxyresorufin activity was not detected. 7-Benzyloxyresorufin (BROD) and 7-pentoxyresorufin (PROD) O-dealkylation decreased at 24 h by 84 and 82%, respectively, and continued to decline over the next 24 h with no measurable PROD at 48 h. The activity of NADPH- and NADH-cytochrome c reductase at 48 h decreased by 31 and 67%, respectively. GST activity decreased by 25 and 42% at 24 and 48 h, respectively. A transient increase in DT-diaphorase activity was observed at 24 h (by 55%). GSH content and gamma-GT activity increased significantly with time in culture. In freshly isolated alveolar macrophages, BROD activity was the only cytochrome P450-dependent alkoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity measured. BROD activity decreased by 38% in 3-h-attached macrophages. There were no changes in NADPH- and NADH-cytochrome c reductase, GST, and DT-diaphorase. An increase of GSH (by 24%) was observed in attached macrophages. In conclusion, type II pneumocytes and to a lesser extent alveolar macrophages in primary cultures undergo changes in biotransformation-related enzyme activities and intracellular GSH level that may affect xenobiotic toxicity at different times in culture.