Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology vol:57 issue:6 pages:1682-7
The pressure swings under the costal (Pcos) and crural diaphragms (Pcru) and between the intestinal loops (Pint) were compared with the swings in gastric pressure (Pga) in 13 supine anesthetized dogs. Pcos, Pcru, and Pint were measured with air-filled latex balloons in eight dogs and saline-filled catheters in five. Pga was measured with an air-filled balloon in all dogs. During quiet breathing differences were often present, the directions of which were variable from animal to animal. During mechanical ventilation, all pressures increased, but both Pcos and Pcru increased more than Pga, whereas only a small change was observed in Pint. During bilateral stimulation of the costal diaphragm, Pcos invariably increased more than Pga and Pint, whereas almost no change was observed in Pcru. During bilateral stimulation of the crural diaphragm, Pcru invariably increased more than Pga, Pint, and Pcos. During abdominal muscle stimulation as during external abdominal compression, Pint always increased more than Pcos and Pcru. During lower rib cage compression, Pga, Pcos, and Pcru increased more than Pint. During sternocleidomastoid stimulation, all pressure swings were negative, but the change in Pint was always smaller than in Pcos, Pcru, or Pga. Inhomogeneities observed with balloons and saline-filled catheters were similar. After the abdomen was filled with 2 liters of saline all pressure swings became much more homogeneous.