BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Early diagnosis of small-bowel tumors is crucial for therapy. Video capsule endoscopy has improved the diagnosis of small-bowel diseases, but data concerning the role of this technique in detecting small-bowel malignancy are scarce. The aim of this paper was to review all capsule endoscopy findings at Belgian hospitals, in order to evaluate the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy in the field of small-bowel malignancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this retrospective study, the seven Belgian academic hospitals where the device was being used were asked to review the findings obtained by means of video capsule endoscopy, and to collect information about the cases of small-bowel malignancy. RESULTS: In total, 443 capsule endoscopies were performed up to November 2004, and 11 malignant small-bowel processes were detected (2.5%). The most frequent indications for performing capsule endoscopy in those 11 cases were intestinal bleeding of undefined origin or iron-deficiency anemia. The mean number of diagnostic procedures performed before capsule endoscopy was 3.6. The capsule endoscopy results had a diagnostic yield of 1.6% after classical work-up. In 55% of these cases, capsule endoscopy findings had an influence on therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Tumors of the small bowel remain a rare condition. Video capsule endoscopy is able to detect tumors undiagnosed by classical procedures in about 1.6% of cases and has an impact on the therapy in 55% of the tumor cases.