Erythropoietin (EPO) treatment dramatically changes the life of a child with end-stage renal disease. The administration of recombinant human (rHu)EPO is beneficial and safe in the predialysis period, during hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, and after renal transplantation. The goal of hemoglobin correction should be the level at which normal quality of life is possible without adverse events: in children this is usually 10-11 g/dl. rHuEPO is administered once to twice a week subcutaneously to children before dialysis, during peritoneal dialysis, and after transplantation. There is no real benefit of intraperitoneal administration. In children on hemodialysis two to three times a week IV administration is preferred. Among the many reasons for non-response to rHuEPO, iron deficiency (absolute or functional), infections, and hyperparathyroidism are the most common in the pediatric renal patient. Hypertension is the most-frequent side effect of rHuEPO treatment and needs careful monitoring. Iron should be supplemented orally or IV. No significant beneficial effect of rHuEPO on growth has been demonstrated. However, the association with recombinant human growth hormone therapy is not detrimental in children.