Critical reviews in eukaryotic gene expression vol:16 issue:2 pages:119-42
Using a genetic approach, an increasing number of genes has been shown to be important for proper skull vault development. In this review, we discuss the genes involved in disorders of the dermal skull vault in humans, including craniosynostosis and skull ossification defects, and supplement this with data from transgenic and knockout mouse models. These studies have shown the importance of signaling mediated by fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. In addition, some insights into the disease mechanisms leading to skull vault disorders are beginning to be discovered.