Current opinion in gastroenterology vol:21 issue:6 pages:665-72
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abnormalities of gastric sensory and motor function are considered key players in the pathogenesis of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in functional dyspepsia and in gastroparesis. This review summarizes recent progress in our understanding of normal and pathologic gastric sensory and motor function. RECENT FINDINGS: Several novel tests have been developed to study gastric sensitivity and meal-induced accommodation, including scintigraphic analysis of meal distribution within the stomach, single photon emission computed tomography of gastric volumes, and nutrient or water challenge tests. Several studies have reported on the occurrence of delayed gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia and in gastroparesis, but the correlation with symptoms was generally poor. The pathways and neurotransmitter involved in gastric hypersensitivity are progressively being unraveled. Several studies have confirmed and focused on increased symptom occurrence after nutrient challenge in functional dyspepsia. The role of the proximal stomach in the control of food intake and the stomach as a target in the treatment of obesity are areas of intense research. Studies have reported on pharmacologic approaches as well as electric stimulation in the treatment of gastric sensorimotor dysfunction. SUMMARY: Progress in our understanding of normal and abnormal gastric sensory and motor function may lead to new or improved treatment modalities. Areas of major advances are the study of meal-induced symptoms in functional dyspepsia, unraveling of the role of the stomach in the control of food intake, and the use of gastric electric stimulation in gastroparesis and in obesity.