European Journal of Immunology vol:34 issue:7 pages:1992-2000
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) that are characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation and a constant influx of leukocytes mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The intestinal expression of the CXCR1-binding chemokines IL-8/CXCL8 and GCP-2/CXCL6 and the participation of immunocompetent cells in IBD were evaluated. IL-8 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from IBD patients, stimulated with endotoxin, plant lectin or double-stranded RNA, was significantly lowered in patients with CD, but not in UC patients or healthy subjects. The reduced chemokine production by PBMC from IBD patients was both IL-8 and CD specific, but not inducer dependent. In serum, most chemokines remained undetectable, while the levels of those that were measurable remained unaltered in IBD patients. GCP-2, but not ENA-78/CXCL5, nor IL-8, were highly expressed by endothelial cells in inflamed intestinal tissue of IBD patients. In contrast, stimulated endothelial cell cultures produced more IL-8 than GCP-2. The selective GCP-2 staining of endothelial cells at sites of ulcerations suggests that GCP-2, despite its low production capacity in vitro, plays a role in IBD that is different from that of structurally (ENA-78) and functionally (IL-8) related ELR(+) CXC chemokines. Thus, the chemokine network shows complementarity rather than redundancy.