OBJECTIVES: Cost-utility analysis in renal transplant populations requires the use of a generic instrument for health status measurement that generates a single value for health. Such instruments should be widely applicable in diverse patient populations and their validity should be established. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of the EQ-5D in renal transplant patients. METHODS: The EQ-5D was compared with the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), the modified transplant symptom occurrence and symptom distress (MTSOSD) scale, the short-form Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Construct and concurrent validity were tested on cross-sectional data of 350 patients. RESULTS: Construct validity is good for some but not all EQ-5D dimensions, and the EQ-5D discriminates well among groups of patients with different health states according to the SF-36, MTSOSD scale, BDI, and STAI and between patients and the general public. Concurrent validity is good, as shown by the correspondence of EQ-5D and SF-36 results. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the EQ-5D is a valid instrument for the measurement of health status in renal transplant patients.