The main objectives of this study were to explore the role of diet-induced thermogenesis in the regulation of voluntary feed intake and to determine the glucose oxidation of broiler chicken strains, known to differ in glucose-insulin balance. From 2 to 7 wk of age, male broiler chickens of a fat and a lean line were reared on 1 of 2 isoenergetic diets with constant gross energy and carbohydrate levels but with substitutions between fat and protein. The low protein (LP/HF) diet contained 126 g of protein/kg and 106 g of fat/kg, whereas the low fat (LF/HP) diet contained 242 g of protein/kg and 43 g of fat/kg. There was no significant effect of the genetic background of the broilers on the glucose oxidation rate (as measured by stable isotope breath test) or protein oxidation (as measured by plasma uric acid levels). Considering the difference in carcass composition (fat content) of both lines, this leads to the hypothesis that the lines differ predominantly in fat metabolism. Although there was no line effect on plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations, it was hypothesized that there might be differences in fat oxidation or de novo lipogenesis, or both, between the genotypes. Diet-induced thermogenesis per metabolic body weight (kg of BW0.75) per 24 h, expressed per gram of feed intake, was not significantly influenced by genetic background or by diet composition. Therefore, a model linking feed intake to diet-induced thermogenesis, as postulated for adult mammals, could not be corroborated for growing broiler chickens.