Current opinion in gastroenterology vol:18 issue:4 pages:447-453
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) affects many patients and has a negative effect on quality of life. Along with the increasing prevalence of GERD is an increase in GERD-related complications, including Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. The past year has yielded new insights into the pathophysiology of GERD that can help us to better understand the relationship between reflux episodes and symptoms of mucosal damage and to provide a tailored treatment targeting individual pathophysiologic defects. The issues addressed in this report include gastric secretory and motor dysfunction; failure of the antireflux barrier caused by hiatal hernia and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations; characterization of the refluxate, particularly of nonacid reflux; prevalence and prognostic value of esophageal dysmotility in GERD; presence and eradication of Helicobacter pylori; Barrett esophagus and extraesophageal manifestations of GERD; and, finally, advances in medical, endoscopic, and surgical treatments of GERD.