We report the history of two 3-year-old children with femoral shaft fractures, who developed severe compartment syndromes following skin traction. Both children were admitted in our department for treatment of their compartment syndromes. In both, important and permanent disability persisted. The causative role of the skin traction is proven by the fact that in one infant, the compartment syndrome developed in the non-fractured limb. Cautious application of skin traction, conscientious observation, immediate diagnosis, and aggressive treatment of threatening compartment syndromes will prevent these tragic complications.