1. Thirty adult female pigeons (Columba livia domestica) were randomly divided into 3 equal groups; the Ist and 2nd groups were immunised with bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 0 and 20 d, the 2nd group also received 1 g L-carnitine per litre of drinking water from 5 to 25 d post-immunisation (dpi) and the 3rd group, a control group, received neither treatment. 2. Body weights and serum samples were taken at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 dpi. 3. Both BSA-specific IgG and IgM responses were enhanced by about 10% by L-carnitine supplementation. 4. L-carnitine supplemented pigeons showed a higher water consumption. Body weight loss during the onset of the immune response showed a slight tendency to be counteracted by L-carnitine supplementation. 5. The impact of L-carnitine on resistance and resilience to an immunological challenge is discussed.