Hydrotalcite-like anionic clays (HTs; or layered double hydroxides, LDHs) can be used as precursors to mixed oxides, but their catalytic potential reaches much further. This review demonstrates that HTs can be successfully applied in a broad spectrum of organic reactions, with advantages such as improved activity, selectivity, metal dispersion, less waste production, and an improved recuperation of immobilized catalysts. HTs can be used in the as-synthesized form or after different pretreatments. The HT as such is a solid base or, depending on the elemental composition of its octahedral layers, may have redox properties. Specific metals can be incorporated either as a cation in the octahedral layer or as an anion via exchange. The anion-exchange strategy is especially successful in the context of heterogenizing homogeneous catalysts. A particular advantage for base catalysis is that the number and strength of the basic sites can be tuned precisely to a specific reaction. HTs are excellent materials to design bifunctional redox-base catalysts or to control the acid-base properties around a heterogenized metal complex. Potential applications of HTs range from the production of large-scale basic chemicals to the synthesis of small-scale specialty chemicals.