Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies and one of the greatest causes of cancer death in the Western world. The prognosis is determined by the stage at diagnosis. Patients with metastatic colon cancer have a bad prognosis. Chemotherapeutic treatment with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and folinic acid is actually considered as the standard treatment in patients with metastatic disease. Although the survival benefit is relatively small, many patients can benefit from this treatment in terms of tumor regression or symptom improvement. Several new drugs are actually in development and create hope for improved tumor or symptom control and longer survival. Thymidylate synthase inhibitors (raltitrexed), topoisomerase I inhibitors (irinotecan), the oral 5-FU prodrugs (capecitabine, UFT), ethynyluracil, and oxaliplatin are promising new drugs. The challenge will be to determine the best combination of these new drugs and the exact sequence in which these drugs will be used. Adjuvant post-operative chemotherapy in colon cancer is one of the most important advances in oncology that has been introduced into the clinic during the last years. For rectal cancer, an adjuvant treatment should consist of a combined chemo-radiotherapy. The search for better prognostic factors for recurrence should help to focus on a better adjuvant treatment for patients with the highest risk for recurrence.