Between 1980 and 2000, 100 renal transplantations were performed in 91 children at the pediatric unit of the University Hospital Leuven. The proportion of living-related donors (LRD) was 20%. Patient survival rates were 94% at 3 yr, 91% at 5 yr, and 87% at 10 yr. The commonest causes of death were bacterial infections and cardiovascular complications, which underscores the need for aggressive preventative procedures in this area after transplantation. The overall actuarial graft survival was 82% at 3 yr (n = 73), 74% at 5 yr (n = 53), and 56% at 10 yr (n = 29). In the LRD group, the graft survival was 10% better than the overall actuarial graft survival rate. The overall incidence of acute rejection was 55% but has shown a decrease to 34% in more recent years (1993-99). The major causes of graft failure were chronic rejection and recurrence of the initial disease, and these remain a major concern. Improvement of these results could be achieved by tight immunosuppression management, early aggressive treatment of infection and rejection, and careful educational and psychological support.