The definition of potential curative tumors of the esophagus and gastro-esophageal junction remains problematic. This is due to a lack of accuracy in clinical staging despite recent advances in CT, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), positron emission tomography scan and minimally invasive staging modalities. As a result much controversy persists regarding indications for surgery and extent of resection and lymphadenectomy. Today surgery with curative option results in five-year survival of over 30%. Multimodality regimens, especially neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, seem to be beneficial in patients with a complete response on pathologic staging. Other indications are investigational and should be studied within carefully monitored study protocols. In early carcinoma T(is)-T(1a) endoluminal ablation technique seem to open promising perspectives provided of discrimination between T(is)-T(1a) and T(1b) can be made by the use of 20mhz EUS probes.