Radical prostatectomy may lead to cure as long as the cancer is confined to the prostate and all malignant cells are removed. However, clinical staging is inaccurate and a significant proportion of cT1-T2 patients have positive margins which increases the likelihood of disease progression within 5 years of surgery. Neoadjuvant hormone therapy is one option being used to increase the likelihood of prostate cancer cure after radical prostatectomy. Randomized clinical trials using neoadjuvant hormone therapy and radical prostatectomy have been conducted mainly in patients with cT1 and cT2 prostate cancer. A decrease in the number of positive surgical margins was found in cT1 and cT2 prostate cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant hormone therapy, with a further decrease in those receiving treatment over longer periods. In cT3 prostate cancer patients equivocal results have been obtained and further research is needed. None of the studies reported so far were able to define the impact of neoadjuvant treatment on the surgical management of locally advanced prostate cancer. Additional studies are required to determine the optimal type and duration of hormone treatment. Furthermore, long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate whether neoadjuvant therapy will improve overall survival. In the meantime, patients must be informed of the advantages and disadvantages of treatment to allow them to make informed treatment decisions.