Journal of Bone and Mineral Research vol:13 issue:2 pages:279-86
This study investigates the biochemical changes in a canine tibia lengthening model in comparison with a nonlengthened osteotomy model. The lengthened and the osteotomized callus and a contralateral corresponding segment were analyzed for their mineralization profile, collagen content, osteocalcin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1). Examinations of bone samples were performed using specimens excised at different time intervals (respectively at 3, 5, 7, 9, and 13 weeks postoperatively). Several serum parameters (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], osteocalcin, IGF-I, and TGF-beta1) were also measured during the experimental period. A progressive increase in mineral parameters was noticed in both the lengthened and the osteotomized areas. A higher level of hydroxyproline and TGF-beta1 was observed in the lengthened area compared with the osteotomized area. IGF-I showed a significant increase in both the lengthened and contralateral control area at the later stage of the experimental period in the lengthened group. In serum, a high level of TGF-beta1 and a progressively increasing osteocalcin concentration were observed in the lengthened dogs in comparison with the osteotomized dogs. Serum ALP was significantly increased in both models during the experimental period. Serum IGF-I was increased in the lengthened models during the distraction period and decreased in the osteotomized models at the early stage of the experimental period. These results suggest that the mechanical strain induced by the Ilizarov distraction procedure stimulates osteoblast proliferation and promotes biosynthesis of bone extracellular matrix in distracted callus. Our data furthermore show that this process is different compared with normal fracture healing.