Besides micro-mechanical interlocking through hybrid-layer formation, self-etch adhesives may benefit from additional chemical interaction between the functional monomer and residual hydroxyapatite. One-step adhesives are commonly associated with lower bonding effectiveness, which must be attributed in part to the dissolution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers in a relatively highly concentrated solvent. In this 'difficult' mixture, also water is essential as ionization medium to enable self-etching activity. Due to the high hydrophilicity, one-step self-etch adhesives have been reported to behave as semi-permeable membranes, allowing fluids to pass through and seriously jeopardizing bond durability. Recent research has also revealed that HEMA-free one-step adhesives are prone to phase-separation, which may also account for their lower bonding effectiveness. Employing an appropriate air-drying technique may, however, improve the bonding effectiveness of such phase-separating adhesives by getting rid of substantially more interfacial water than HEMA-containing adhesives, of which water might be more difficult to remove from.