Specific inhibition of P-selectin-mediated cell adhesion by phage display-derived peptide antagonists
Molenaar, Tom J M Appeldoorn, Chantal C M de Haas, Sonja A M Michon, Ingrid N Bonnefoy, Arnaud Hoylaerts, Marc Pannekoek, Hans van Berkel, Theo J C Kuiper, Johan Biessen, Erik A L # ×
Blood vol:100 issue:10 pages:3570-7
P-selectin is a leukocyte adhesion receptor expressed on activated vascular endothelium and platelets that mediates leukocyte rolling and attachment. Because P-selectin is critically involved in inflammation, we used phage display libraries to identify P-selectin-specific peptides that might interfere with its proinflammatory function. Isolated phage contained a highly conserved amino acid motif. Synthetic peptides showed calcium-dependent binding to P-selectin, with high selectivity over E-selectin and L-selectin. The peptides completely antagonized adhesion of monocyte-derived HL60 cells to P-selectin and increased their rolling velocities in flow chamber experiments. Peptide truncation and alanine-scanning studies indicated that an EWVDV (single-letter amino acid codes) consensus motif sufficed for effective inhibition. Intriguingly, the apparent avidity of the peptides was increased 200-fold when presented in a tetrameric form (2 microM versus 10 nM), which is consistent with the proposed divalent interaction of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) with P-selectin. As the EWVDV peptides inhibit the binding of an established glycoside ligand for P-selectin (sulfated Lewis A), it is conceivable that EWVDV interacts with or in close proximity to the actual carbohydrate recognition domain of P-selectin, without being a direct structural mimic of sialyl Lewis(x). These ligands are among the most potent antagonists of P-selectin yet designed. Their high affinity, selectivity, and accessible synthesis provide a promising entry to the development of new anti-inflammatory therapeutics and might be a powerful tool to provide important information on the binding site of P-selectin.