Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:266 issue:7 pages:4041-4
The reaction between plasminogen activators and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is characterized by an initial rapid formation of an inactive reversible complex. The second-order association rate constant (k1) of complex formation of recombinant two-chain tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) or recombinant two-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (rtcu-PA) by recombinant plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (rPAI-1) is 2.9 +/- 0.4 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 (mean +/- S.D., n = 30) and 2.0 +/- 0.6 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 (n = 12), respectively. Different molecular forms of tissue- or urokinase-type plasminogen activator which do not form covalent complexes with rPAI-1, including rt-PA-Ala478 (rt-PA with the active-site Ser478 mutagenized to Ala) and anhydro-urokinase (rtcu-PA with the active-site Ser356 converted to dehydroalanine) reduced k1 in a concentration-dependent manner, compatible with 1:1 stoichiometric complex formation between rPAI-1 and these ligands. The apparent dissociation constant (KD) of the complex between rPAI-1 and rt-PA-Ala478, determined as the concentration of rt-PA-Ala478 which reduced k1 to 50% of its control value, was 3-5 nM. Corresponding concentrations of active-site-blocked two-chain rt-PA were 150-250-fold higher. The concentration of anhydro-urokinase which reduced k1 to 50% was 4-6 nM, whereas that of active-site-blocked rtcu-PA was 100-250-fold higher. Recombinant single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator had an apparent KD of about 2 microM. These results suggest that inhibition of rt-PA or rtcu-PA by rPAI-1 proceeds via a reversible high affinity interaction which does not require a functional active site but which is markedly reduced following inactivation of the enzymes with active-site titrants.