We have examined the effects of the psychostimulant d-amphetamine and the neuroleptic haloperidol on hypothermia induced by intraperitoneal injection of the centrally penetrating opioids morphine, fentanyl and sufentanil and the peripherally acting opioid loperamide. Measuring rectal body temperatures, dose-response relationships were established for all compounds. Morphine and sufentanil produced hyperthermia at low doses and dose-related hypothermia at higher doses. Fentanyl and loperamide produced dose-related hypothermia. Fixed doses of each opioid producing significant hypothermia were selected for interaction studies. The psychostimulant d-amphetamine was found to produce biphasic effects with low doses inducing hypothermia and higher doses inducing hyperthemia. Haloperidol produced dose-related hypothermia. The selected doses of the opioids were then injected followed after 15 min. by injection of hypothermia producing doses of d-amphetamine or haloperidol. Hypothermia induced by morphine, fentanyl and sufentanil was reversed by d-amphetamine whereas loperamide-induced hypothermia was unaffected. Rebound hyperthermia was also measured with fentanyl and sufentanil. Haloperidol increased the hypothermic effects of morphine, fentanyl and sufentanil but not of loperamide. In conclusion, the central stimulating effects of opioids and amphetamine may combine resulting in thermogenesis and reversal of hypothermia. Central mechanisms of opioid-induced hypothermia in mice are influenced by drugs which alter the dopamine system, whereas peripheral mechanisms are unaffected. A possible clinical implication for this dopaminergic interaction may be toxicity associated with hyperpyrexia caused by psychostimulant misuse, which is increasingly occurring concomitantly with abuse of opioids.