Journal of Clinical Investigation vol:94 issue:4 pages:1496-505
Anti-Factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies were prepared by a combination of salt precipitation, gel filtration chromatography, and specific adsorption over insolubilized FVIII from the serum of 10 healthy subjects with normal levels of FVIII. Antibody specificity was confirmed by the capacity to recognize soluble and insolubilized FVIII and to neutralize FVIII cofactor activity in FX activation. Epitope mapping was carried out using a competition ELISA in which affinity-purified human antibodies inhibited the binding of labeled monoclonal antibodies. In most cases, a single region of the A3 domain of the FVIII light chain was recognized by the antibodies, while the reactivity toward heavy chain epitopes differed from one antibody preparation to the other. Sera or IgG fractions of the serum before immunoadsorption over insolubilized FVIII did not bind to FVIII. The IgG fraction that was not retained on the FVIII immunosorbent contained IgG that bound to the variable part of anti-FVIII mouse monoclonal antibodies and inhibited the binding of labeled FVIII; in addition, the IgG fraction inhibited the binding of affinity-purified human antibodies to FVIII, thereby strongly suggesting the presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies. These findings indicate that the presence of anti-FVIII antibodies is a more universal phenomenon than previously thought and that anti-idiotypic antibodies capable of inhibiting the binding of anti-FVIII antibodies to FVIII are produced spontaneously.