Lacroix-Desmazes, S × Moreau, A Pashov, A Sooryanarayana Stahl, D Saint-Remy, Jean-Marie Kaveri, S V Kazatchkine, M D #
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis vol:26 issue:2 pages:157-65
Anti-factor VIII antibodies represent a unique model to study the relationship between natural autoreactivity (natural antibodies to factor VIII of healthy individuals), disease-associated autoimmunity ("spontaneous" factor VIII inhibitors of patients with anti-factor VIII autoimmune disease) and antigen-driven immune responses (immune inhibitors in multitransfused patients with hemophilia A) to a single human protein antigen. Although natural and disease-associated anti-factor VIII antibodies are not readily distinguished based on the comparison of their isotypic distribution and epitope mapping, available studies of cross-reacting idiotypes suggest that factor VIII inhibitors in patient's plasma encompass two populations of anti-factor VIII antibodies. Some antibodies result from the clonal expansion of B lymphocytes that exist before treatment with factor VIII and secrete anti-factor VIII antibodies with properties similar to those of natural anti-factor VIII antibodies present in healthy individuals; other inhibitors are produced by B cell clones that have undergone affinity maturation and hypermutation of the V regions of the antibodies they produce. The implications for the treatment of patients with anti-factor VIII inhibitors are discussed.