Title: Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of phenylenebis(methylene)-linked bis-azamacrocycles that inhibit HIV-1 and HIV-2 replication by antagonism of the chemokine receptor CXCR4
Authors: Bridger, G J ×
Skerlj, R T
Padmanabhan, S
Martellucci, S A
Henson, G W
Struyf, Sofie
Witvrouw, Myriam
Schols, Dominique
De Clercq, Erik #
Issue Date: Sep-1999
Series Title: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry vol:42 issue:19 pages:3971-81
Abstract: Bis-tetraazamacrocycles such as the bicyclam AMD3100 are a class of potent and selective anti-HIV-1 and HIV-2 agents that inhibit virus replication by binding to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, the co-receptor for entry of X4 viruses. With the aim of optimizing the anti-HIV-1 and HIV-2 activity of bis-azamacrocycles, a series of analogues were synthesized which contain neutral heteroatom (oxygen, sulfur) or heteroaromatic (of lower pK(a) than a secondary amine) replacements for the amino groups of AMD3100. The introduction of one or more heteroatoms such as oxygen or sulfur into the macrocyclic ring of p-phenylenebis(methylene)-linked dimers (to give N(3)X or N(2)X(2) bis-macrocycles) gave analogues with substantially reduced anti-HIV-1 (III(B)) and anti-HIV-2 (ROD) potency. In addition, the bis-sulfur analogue was also markedly more cytotoxic to MT-4 cells. However, bis-tetraazamacrocycles featuring a single pyridine group incorporated within the macrocyclic framework exhibited anti-HIV-1 and HIV-2 potency comparable to that of their saturated, aliphatic counterparts. The p-phenylenebis(methylene)-linked dimer of the py[14]aneN(4) macrocycle inhibited HIV-1 replication at a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of 0.5 microM while remaining nontoxic to MT-4 cells at concentrations approaching 200 microM. A series of analogues containing macrocyclic heteroaromatic groups of varying pK(a) were also synthesized, and their ability to inhibit HIV replication was evaluated. Replacing the pyridine moiety of the py[14]aneN(4) macrocyclic ring with pyrazine or pyridine groups substituted in the 4-position (with electron-withdrawing or -donating groups) either reduced antiviral potency or increased cytotoxicity to MT-4 cells. Finally, we synthesized a series of analogues in which the ring size of the bis-pyridyl macrocycles was varied between 12 and 16 members per ring including the py[iso-14]aneN(4) ring system, an isomer of the py[14]aneN(4) macrocycle. The p-phenylenebis(methylene)-linked dimer of the py[iso-14]aneN(4) (AMD3329) displayed the highest antiviral activity of the bis-azamacrocyclic analogues reported to date, exhibiting EC(50)'s against the cytopathic effects of HIV-1 and HIV-2 replication of 0.8 and 1.6 nM, respectively, that is, about 3-5-fold lower than the EC(50) of AMD3100. AMD3329 also inhibited the binding of a specific CXCR4 mAb and the Ca(2+) flux induced by SDF-1alpha, the natural ligand for CXCR4, more potently than AMD3100. Furthermore, AMD3329 also interfered with virus-induced syncytium formation at an EC(50) of 12 nM.
ISSN: 0022-2623
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy (Rega Institute)
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology (Rega Institute)
Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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