Journal of cross-cultural psychology vol:24 issue:3 pages:319-343
In a comparative study of Belgian and Turkish youth and Turkish migrant youth in Belgium, the psychological relevance of individualistic-collectivistic value orientations for personal motivation was studied. A new Motives Questionnaire with cross-culturally equivalent scales for general motivational dimensions is presented. A multiple-strategy approach is proposed to establish equivalence, combining factor analysis and individual difference scaling (INDSCAL) with a measure of external validity in each group. Our findings support partial equivalence and allow a refinement of the individualism-collectivism opposition, revealing motivational conflicts of individualistic Self-Realization and Autonomy poles with respectively collectivist Social Contact and Group Loyalty poles. Effects of social and cultural change on motivation are discussed. Preference for individualistic Self-Realization together with collectivist Group Loyalty in modem Turkish youth integrates individualistic-collectivist values into a group-oriented achievement motive.