Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:266 issue:18 pages:11826-32
The mechanism of plasminogen activation by recombinant staphylokinase was studied both in the absence and in the presence of fibrin, in purified systems, and in human plasma. Staphylokinase, like streptokinase, forms a stoichiometric complex with plasminogen that activates plasminogen following Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Km = 7.0 microM and k2 = 1.5 s-1. In purified systems, alpha 2-antiplasmin inhibits the plasminogen-staphylokinase complex with k1(app) = 2.7 +/- 0.30 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 (mean +/- S.D., n = 12), but not the plasminogen-streptokinase complex. Addition of 6-aminohexanoic acid induces a concentration-dependent reduction of k1(app) to 2.0 +/- 0.17 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 (mean +/- S.D., n = 5) at concentrations greater than or equal to 30 mM, with a 50% reduction at a 6-aminohexanoic acid concentration of 60 microM. Staphylokinase does not bind to fibrin, and fibrin stimulates the initial rate of plasminogen activation by staphylokinase only 4-fold. Staphylokinase induces a dose-dependent lysis of a 0.12-ml 125I-fibrin-labeled human plasma clot submersed in 0.5 ml of citrated human plasma; 50% lysis in 2 h is obtained with 17 nM staphylokinase and is associated with only 5% plasma fibrinogen degradation. Corresponding values for streptokinase are 68 nM and more than 90% fibrinogen degradation. In the absence of a fibrin clot, 50% fibrinogen degradation in human plasma in 2 h requires 790 nM staphylokinase, but only 4.4 nM streptokinase. These results suggest the following mechanism for relatively fibrin-specific clot lysis with staphylokinase in a plasma milieu. In plasma in the absence of fibrin, the plasminogen-staphylokinase complex is rapidly neutralized by alpha 2-antiplasmin, thus preventing systemic plasminogen activation. In the presence of fibrin, the lysine-binding sites of the plasminogen-staphylokinase complex are occupied and inhibition by alpha 2-antiplasmin is retarded, thus allowing preferential plasminogen activation at the fibrin surface.