Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:279 issue:25 pages:26266-73
Shear stress triggers von Willebrand factor (VWF) binding to platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha and subsequent integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3)-dependent platelet aggregation. Concomitantly, nucleotides are released from plateletdense granules, and ADP is known to contribute to shear-induced platelet aggregation (SIPA). We found that the impaired SIPA of platelets from a Hermansky-Pudlak patient lacking dense granules was restored by exogenous l-beta,gamma-methylene ATP, a stable P2X(1) agonist, as well as by ADP, confirming that in addition to ADP (via P2Y(1) and P2Y(12)), ATP (via P2X(1)) also contributes to SIPA. Likewise, SIPA of apyrase-treated platelets was restored upon P2X(1) activation with l-beta,gamma-methylene ATP, which promoted granule centralization within platelets and stimulated P-selectin expression, which is a marker of alpha-granule release. In addition, during SIPA, platelet degranulation required both extracellular Ca(2+) and VWF-glycoprotein Ibalpha interactions without involving alpha(IIb)beta(3). Neither platelet release nor SIPA was affected by protein kinase C inactivation, even though protein kinase C blockade inhibits platelet responses to collagen and thrombin in stirring conditions. In contrast, inhibiting myosin light chain (MLC) kinase with ML-7 reduced platelet release and SIPA by 30%. Accordingly, the potentiating effect of P2X(1) stimulation on the aggregation of apyrase-treated platelets coincided with intensified phosphorylation of MLC and was abrogated by ML-7. SIPA-induced MLC phosphorylation occurred exclusively through released nucleotides and selective antagonism of P2X(1) with MRS2159-reduced SIPA, ATP release, and potently inhibited MLC phosphorylation. We conclude that the P2X(1) ion channel induces MLC-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangements, thus contributing to SIPA and degranulation during VWF-triggered platelet activation.