Elimination of Kupffer cells by cytotoxic clodronate liposomes increases transgene expression in the liver after adenoviral transfer. Here, we demonstrate that empty l-alpha-phosphatidylcholine liposomes block uptake of vectors in the reticuloendothelial cells of the liver and increase human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (approved gene symbol apo A-I) expression in C57BL/6 (1.3-fold) and Balb/c mice (3.1-fold) to the same extent as clodronate liposomes (1.5- and 3.4-fold, respectively). A similar elevation of human apo A-I levels was induced by the lipid emulsion Intralipid (1.5- and 2.8-fold in C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice, respectively). Not only Kupffer cells but also hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC) constitute the reticuloendothelial cells of the liver. The uptake of adenoviral vectors 1 h after transfer in C57BL/6 mice was 2.9-fold lower in Kupffer cells than in HSEC. In contrast, Kupffer cell uptake in Balb/c mice was 2.6-fold higher than in HSEC. Vector uptake in reticuloendothelial cells of the liver was reduced and transgene expression was increased in splenectomized and Rag2-deficient Balb/c mice but not in splenectomized and Rag1-deficient C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, lipid emulsions for parenteral clinical use block uptake of adenoviral vectors by the reticuloendothelial cells of the liver and potently increase transgene expression.