The Journal of Infectious Diseases vol:174 issue:5 pages:962-8
A human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive patient was treated sequentially with the dideoxynucleoside (ddN) analogues zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, and lamivudine and the nonnucleoside HIV-1-specific reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) loviride (alpha-APA). Accumulation of drug resistance mutations (mainly V75I, F77L, K103N, F116Y, Q151M, and M184V) eventually resulted in a strain that was genotypically and phenotypically resistant to all tested ddNs and the majority of NNRTIs. However, the multidrug-resistant virus retained wild type sensitivities to drugs such as foscarnet, phosphonomethoxyethyl adenine, dextran sulfate, JM3100, saquinavir, and NNRTI TSAO-m3T. Drug-resistant isolates showed replication kinetics and infectivity in an in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell system similar to those of the wild type isolate from the same patient. The multi-ddN-resistant isolate was not eliminated in a competition culture with the wild type isolate. Sequential therapy did not prevent the appearance of multidrug-resistant virus with a conserved replication rate.