Factor VIII (FVIII) administration elicits specific inhibitory antibodies (Abs) in about 25% of patients with hemophilia A. The majority of such Abs reacts with FVIII C2 domain. mAbBO2C11 is a high-affinity human monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed toward the C2 domain, which is representative of a major class of human FVIII inhibitors. Anti-idiotypic Abs were raised to mAbBO2C11 to establish their neutralizing potential toward inhibitors. One mouse anti-idiotypic mAb, mAb14C12, specifically prevented mAbBO2C11 binding to FVIII C2 domain and fully neutralized mAbBO2C11 functional inhibitory properties. Modeling of the 3-D conformation of mAb14C12 VH and alignment with the 3-D structure of the C2 domain showed putative 31 surface-exposed amino acid residues either identical or homologous to the C2 domain. These included one C2 phospholipid-binding site, Leu2251-Leu2252, but not Met2199-Phe2200. Forty putative contact residues with mAbBO2C11 were identified. mAb14C12 dose-dependently neutralized mAbBO2C11 inhibitory activity in mice with hemophilia A reconstituted with human recombinant FVIII (rFVIII), allowing full expression of FVIII activity. It also neutralized in an immunoprecipitation assay approximately 50% of polyclonal anti-C2 Abs obtained from 3 of 6 unrelated patients. mAb14C12 is the first example of an anti-idiotypic Ab that fully restores FVIII activity in vivo in the presence of an anti-C2 inhibitor. The present results establish the in vitro and in vivo proof of concept for idiotype-mediated neutralization of a major class of FVIII inhibitors.