A simple method to discriminate between beta2-glycoprotein I- and prothrombin-dependent lupus anticoagulants
Simmelink, M J A × Derksen, R H W M Arnout, Jozef De Groot, P G #
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH vol:1 issue:4 pages:740-7
Lupus anticoagulants (LAC) are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies that prolong phospholipid-dependent clotting assays. The autoantibodies that cause LAC activity are predominantly directed against beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) or prothrombin. In the present study, we describe a method to differentiate between LAC caused by antibodies directed against beta2GPI or prothrombin. Monoclonal antibodies, affinity purified patient antibodies, and selected patient samples were used to show that in an aPTT-based clotting assay (PTT-LA; Diagnostica Stago), the use of cardiolipin vesicles in the neutralization procedure discriminates between beta2GPI- or prothrombin-dependent LAC activities. Addition of cardiolipin vesicles shortened the prolonged clotting time caused by anti-beta2GPI antibodies with LAC activity, whereas this procedure further prolonged clotting times caused by antiprothrombin antibodies with LAC activity. In contrast, addition of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine vesicles corrected prolonged clotting times caused by either anti-beta2GPI or antiprothrombin antibodies with LAC activity. The effects of cardiolipin (CL) on beta2GPI-induced LAC activity were specific for contact activation mediated clotting assays. Possible explanations for these findings are the relatively high affinity of beta2GPI for cardiolipin, as determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis, and inhibition by anti-beta2GPI antibodies of the CL-induced prolongation of the PTT-LA.