Gallic acid antagonizes P-selectin-mediated platelet-leukocyte interactions: implications for the French paradox
Appeldoorn, Chantal C M Bonnefoy, Arnaud Lutters, Bianca C H Daenens, Kim van Berkel, Theo J C Hoylaerts, Marc × Biessen, Erik A L #
American Heart Association
Circulation vol:111 issue:1 pages:106-112
BACKGROUND: Current paradigm attributes the low incidence of cardiovascular disorders in Mediterranean countries despite a high saturated fat intake, the "French paradox," to the antioxidant capacity of red wine polyphenols. Conceivably, other antiinflammatory pathways may contribute to at least a similar extent to the atheroprotective activity of these polyphenols. We have investigated whether gallic acid (GA), an abundant red wine polyphenol, modulates the activity of P-selectin, an adhesion molecule that is critically involved in the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the vessel wall and thus in atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: GA potently inhibited the binding of a peptide antagonist (IC50, 7.2 micromol/L) and biotin-PAA-Le(a)-SO3H, an established high-affinity ligand, to P-selectin (IC50, 85 micromol/L). Under dynamic flow conditions, GA markedly and dose dependently attenuated the rolling of monocytic HL60 cells over P-selectin-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells (EC50, 14.5 micromol/L) while increasing the velocity of P-selectin-dependent rolling of human blood leukocytes over a platelet monolayer. In vivo tests established that GA administration to normolipidemic C57/Bl6 and aged atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice impaired the baseline rolling of conjugates between activated platelets and circulating monocytes over femoral vein endothelium, as judged by online video microscopy (ED50, 1.7+/-0.3 and 1.5+/-0.4 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1), respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a solid mechanistic foundation through which GA intervenes in major inflammatory pathobiologies by binding and antagonizing P-selectin.