Thrombosis and haemostasis vol:84 issue:1 pages:71-77
The chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2alpha was identified as a plasminogen binding protein by phage display analysis. MIP-2alpha and a truncated form lacking 5 lysine residues in the COOH-terminal region (mut-MIP-2alpha) were expressed in E. coli and purified to apparent homogeneity. Purified MIP-2alpha but not mut-MIP-2alpha bound specifically to plasminogen, with K(A) of 3.7 X 10(5) M(-1) for the interaction of plasminogen with surface-bound MIP-2alpha. Binding and competition experiments indicated that the interaction involves the region comprising the first 3 kringles of plasminogen and the COOH-terminal lysine-rich domain of MIP-2alpha. Activation of plasminogen bound to surface-associated MIP-2alpha by two-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (tcu-PA) was about 2.5-fold more efficient than in solution (catalytic efficiency k(cat)K(M) of 0.1 microM(-1)s(-1), as compared to 0.04 microM(-1)s(-1). In contrast, binding of plasminogen to MIP-2alpha in solution was very weak, as evidenced by the absence of competition of MIP-2alpha with lysine-Sepharose or with human THP-1 cells for binding of plasminogen. In agreement with this finding, addition of excess MIP-2alpha did not affect the main functional properties of plasmin(ogen) in solution, as indicated by unaltered activation rates of plasminogen by tcu-PA or tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), t-PA-mediated fibrinolysis, and inhibition rate of plasmin by alpha2-antiplasmin. Thus, association of MIP-2alpha with surfaces exposes its COOH-terminal plasminogen-binding site, and may result in enhanced local plasmin generation.