Initiation of bone development by osteogenin and promotion by growth factors
Reddi, A H × Muthukumaran, N Ma, S Carrington, J L Luyten, F P Paralkar, V M Cunningham, N S #
Connective tissue research vol:20 issue:1-4 pages:303-12
The cellular and molecular basis of bone development and its regulation by differentiation and growth factors is an exciting area of current research. This article briefly reviews the historical progress in the isolation of osteogenin, a novel bone differentiation factor, and its modulation by well known growth factors. Endochondral bone development is a multistep sequential cascade and the process must be operationally dissected. It has been accomplished with the demineralized bone matrix-induced bone formation model. The reproducible development of cartilage and bone in an extraskeletal site permits the study of the initiation of the first cycle of endochondral bone formation and mineralization. Recent progress in the isolation of osteogenin, a specific bone differentiation factor, by heparin affinity chromatography permits the further investigation of the commitment and clonal expansion of the putative osteoprogenitor stem cells. Once initiated, bone formation is promoted by growth factors such as platelet derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, insulin like growth factor, transforming growth factor beta and a plethora of non specific cytokines. Finally bone development is further modulated by systemic hormones and nutrition and a host of physical signals including electrical, gravitational and mechanical forces.