Tissue factor as the main activator of the coagulation system during cardiopulmonary bypass
De Somer, F × Van Belleghem, Y Caes, F François, K Van Overbeke, H Arnout, Jozef Taeymans, Y Van Nooten, G #
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery vol:123 issue:5 pages:951-8
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the influence of foreign material and blood aspirated from nonvascular structures on activation of coagulation, hemolysis, and blood loss. METHODS: The series comprises 3 randomized groups (groups C, S, and S+P) of 10 patients undergoing routine coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. In group C, the control group, all aspirated blood was returned into the circulation. In group S suction blood was discarded, whereas group S+P was identical to group S, with surfaces coated with phosphorylcholine. Plasma concentrations of beta-thromboglobulin, thrombin generation, haptoglobin, and free hemoglobin, as well as blood loss, were measured. RESULTS: A steady increase in free plasma hemoglobin, as well as an increased generation of thrombin, was noticed in group C. Moreover, a close correlation (r = 0.916) between the generation of thrombin and its inhibition (thrombin-antithrombin complexes) was observed. Platelets were clearly activated in group C and, to a lesser extent, in group S. In contrast, platelet activation in group S+P was negligible, resulting in a 30% decrease in blood loss (P =.05). CONCLUSIONS: Aspirated blood contaminated by tissue contact is the most important activator of the coagulation system and the principal cause of hemolysis during cardiopulmonary bypass. Contact with a foreign surface is not a main variable in the procoagulant effect of bypass. Mimicking the outer cell membrane structure resulted in decreased platelet activation and decreased blood loss.