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Title: Evaluation of the potential of ion pair formation to improve the oral absorption of two potent antiviral compounds, AMD3100 and PMPA
Authors: Van Gelder, Jan * ×
Witvrouw, Myriam *
Pannecouque, Christophe
Henson, G
Bridger, G
Naesens, Lieve
De Clercq, Erik
Annaert, Pieter
Shafiee, M
Van den Mooter, Guy
Kinget, Renaat
Augustijns, Patrick #
Issue Date: Sep-1999
Series Title: International journal of pharmaceutics vol:186 issue:2 pages:127-136
Abstract: 9-(2-phosphonyomethoxypropyl)adenine (PMPA) and AMD3100 are highly potent and selective antiretroviral agents. Since PMPA is negatively charged and AMD3100 positively charged at physiological pH, their transepithelial transport and their potential for oral drug delivery is very low. In this study, ion pair formation was evaluated as a possible strategy to enhance transepithelial transport of PMPA and AMD3100. Positively charged counter ions such as t-hexyl-, t-heptyl-, t-octylammonium bromide and dodecyl-, tetradecyl-, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide were used to form ion pairs with PMPA, while sodium taurodeoxycholate (in vitro experiments) and sodium taurocholate (in vivo experiments) were used as counter ions for AMD3100. The effect of counter ions on transepithelial transport of PMPA (1 mM) and AMD3100 (1 mM) was investigated by measuring the flux across Caco-2 monolayers. An enhancement in drug transport could be observed at a concentration of 2 mM of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (counter ion for PMPA) and 10 mM of sodium taurodeoxycholate (counter ion for AMD3100), but at the concentrations used, the absorption enhancing effect could be attributed to a reduction of the integrity of the monolayers. When AMD3100 transport was tested at a concentration of 200 microM, no flux was observed, even in the presence of relatively high concentrations of counter ion (20 times the concentration of AMD3100). Results obtained from partitioning studies of the drugs in the presence or absence of counter ion revealed that competition by other ions was responsible for the absence of an effect: when pure water was used as the aqueous phase, a reduction up to 24.4+/-1.4% and 17.0+/-1.3% of the initial aqueous concentration was observed for PMPA and AMD3100, respectively; however, as soon as other ions were present in the aqueous phase, the effect of the counter ion was diminished (25-50 mOsm) or completely abolished (270-305 mOsm). The absorption enhancing effect of counter ions was also studied in vivo: pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits showed that the oral bioavailability of AMD3100 in the presence of 4 equivalents of taurocholic acid remained very low and was only 3.2-fold better (i.e. 3.6%) in comparison to pure AMD3100. In view of the results obtained in the Caco-2 system, this absorption enhancement can be attributed to an effect on monolayer integrity rather than to the potential to form ion pairs. We can conclude that the formation of ion pairs may not be very efficient as a strategy to enhance transepithelial transport of charged hydrophilic compounds, as competition by other ions may abolish the beneficial effect of counter ions.
ISSN: 0378-5173
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Drug Delivery and Disposition
Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy (Rega Institute)
Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy
* (joint) first author
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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