Patients with mild or moderate haemophilia A usually have a mild bleeding disorder requiring only occasional treatment with factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates. The frequency of inhibitor development in such patients has been the subject of several recent surveys, which significantly modified our appreciation of this complication. Studies of the anti-FVIII antibodies provided an explanation for the different bleeding phenotypes observed in mild/moderate haemophilia A patients with inhibitors. Antibodies distinguishing between the patient's mutant FVIII and the normal wild-type FVIII were characterized, in addition to antibodies inhibiting completely or only partially FVIII activity. T lymphocytes recognizing FVIII and likely involved in the development of the immune response to FVIII were successfully identified. The FVIII peptides recognized by those FVIII-specific cells bind to many major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, which may provide an explanation for the lack of strong association between MHC haplotypes and inhibitor development. Although these studies have advanced our understanding of the conditions leading to inhibitor development, further work is required to determine whether the mode of FVIII administration significantly influences inhibitor development. Further studies of the genetic factors are also required to fully understand the mechanisms leading to inhibitor development in patients with mild/moderate haemophilia A.