Previous studies have established that the novel neuroendocrine-specific NSP gene encodes three carboxy-terminally overlapping proteins, NSP-A, NSP-B and NSP-C which are anchored to membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we report results of studies in which expression of NSP-A in rat brain was investigated. Immunization of mice with a bacterial hybrid protein containing almost all NSP-A sequences led to the isolation of five monoclonal anti-NSP-A antibodies. The corresponding epitopes were found to be mapping to two regions unique to NSP-A. In Western blot analysis of rat cerebrum and cerebellum using these antibodies, proteins of about 145 kDa were detected. An immunohistochemical study of rat brain revealed the presence of NSP-A in many brain regions, particularly in cerebellar Purkinje cells, in neurons of the superior colliculus and of the pyriform and enthorhinal cortex, in fibers of the basal ganglia and several hippocampal regions including CA3 (stratum lucidum) and the dentate gyrus, in the induseum griseum and in the subcommissural organ, suggesting a role of NSP-A in many areas of the brain.