Enzyme and microbial technology vol:26 issue:9-10 pages:819-825
Yeast cells growing in the presence of glucose or a related rapidly-fermented sugar differ strongly in a variety of physiological properties compared to cells growing in the absence of glucose. Part of these differences appear to be caused by the protein kinase A (PKA) and related signal transduction pathways. Addition of glucose to cells previously deprived of glucose triggers cAMP accumulation, which is apparently mediated by the Gpr1-Gpa2 G-protein coupled receptor system. However, the resulting effect on PKA-controlled properties is only transient when there is no complete growth medium present. When an essential nutrient is lacking, the cells arrest in the stationary phase G0. At the same time they acquire all characteristics of cells with low PKA activity, even if there is ample glucose present. When the essential nutrient is added again, a similar PKA-dependent protein phosphorylation cascade is triggered as observed after addition of glucose to glucose-deprived cells, but which is not cAMP-mediated. Because the pathway involved requires a fermentable carbon source and a complete growth medium, at least for its sustained activation, it has been called "fermentable growth medium (FGM)-induced pathway."