Journal of cellular physiology. vol:144 issue:3 pages:365-75
We have studied the regulation of the Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent polyamine transport pathways in the renal LLC-PK1 cell line. Most of the experiments were performed in the presence of 5 mM DL-2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) in order to inhibit the cellular synthesis of polyamines. The activity of both transporters as measured by putrescine uptake was increased by growth-promoting stimuli and decreased by exogenous polyamines. The time course of the increase in uptake activity induced by fetal calf serum could be fitted by a single exponential, and the process was three times faster for the Na(+)-dependent than for the Na(+)-independent transporter. Maximum activity was reached after more than 24 h. This increase could be inhibited by actinomycin D and by cycloheximide. Other growth-promoting stimuli, such as subconfluent cell density, as well as growth factors also induced an increase in the transport activity. Particularly, there was a marked stimulation of the Na(+)-dependent pathway by epidermal growth factor in combination with insulin. On the other hand, the transport activity decayed very rapidly upon addition of exogenous polyamines (t1/2 less than 60 min). The diamine putrescine was much less effective in this respect than the polyamines spermidine and spermine. The non-metabolizable substrate methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) did not induce a decay of the transport activity, but it protected the Na(+)-dependent pathway against the polyamine-induced decay. Inhibition of the protein synthesis by cycloheximide did not induce a rapid decrease of the transport activity; neither did it affect the polyamine-induced decay. These observations suggest that this polyamine-induced decay is not owing to an inhibitory effect on the rate of synthesis of the transporters, but rather to a degradation or an inactivation of the transporters. The polyamine-induced decay slowed down at lower cell density. This effect was particularly pronounced for the Na(+)-dependent transporter. Since the uptake of polyamines was increased at low cell density, the decreased rate of decay in this condition pleads against a simple mechanism of transinhibition by the substrate. In conclusion, both transport pathways were similarly affected by the regulatory parameters, but the Na(+)-dependent transporter was more rapidly and more effectively regulated. The numerous interacting regulatory steps furthermore suggest a physiological role for these transporters, such as an involvement in urinary polyamine disposal.