American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:280 issue:46 pages:38862-9
SIPP1 (splicing factor that interacts with PQBP1 and PP1) is a widely expressed protein of 70 kDa that has been implicated in pre-mRNA splicing. It interacts with protein Ser/Thr phosphatase-1 (PP1) and with the polyglutamine-tract-binding protein 1 (PQBP1), which contributes to the pathogenesis of X-linked mental retardation and neurodegenerative diseases caused by polyglutamine tract expansions. We show here that SIPP1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. Under basal circumstances SIPP1 was largely nuclear, but it accumulated in the cytoplasm following UV- or X-radiation. Nuclear import was mediated by two nuclear localization signals. In addition, SIPP1 could be piggy-back transported to the nucleus with its ligand PQBP1. In the nucleus SIPP1 and PQBP1 formed inclusion bodies similar to those detected in polyglutamine diseases. SIPP1 did not function as a nuclear targeting subunit of PP1 but re-localized nuclear PP1 to storage sites for splicing factors. The C-terminal residues of SIPP1, which do not conform to a classic nuclear export signal, were required for its nuclear export via the CMR-1 pathway. Finally, SIPP1 activated pre-mRNA splicing in intact cells, and the extent of splicing activation correlated with the nuclear concentration of SIPP1. We conclude that SIPP1 is a positive regulator of pre-mRNA splicing that is regulated by nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. These findings also have potential implications for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of X-linked mental retardation and polyglutamine-linked neurodegenerative disorders.