Cellular distribution of the two forms of SERCA2 was examined in adult chicken brain. Four regions of the brain were analyzed with three immunological reagents: a monoclonal antibody that recognizes both forms of SERCA2, and two antisera which are specific for the two alternative forms, SERCA2b or SERCA2a. Cerebellar Purkinje cells express predominantly SERCA2b but also low levels of SERCA2a, as has been reported for mammals. The nucleus isthmo-opticus, nucleus magnocellularis cochlearis, and nucleus laminaris all express high levels of SERCA2 but with different ratios of SERCA2b and SERCA2a. These immunohistochemical results were supported by in situ hybridization analysis. Therefore, it appears that regions within the brain have specific requirements for the two forms of SERCA2. This suggests functional significance for the alternative forms SERCA2b and SERCA2a, and possible functions are discussed.