Verhandelingen - Koninklijke Academie voor Geneeskunde van België. vol:51 issue:3 pages:269-93
The Ca2+-transport ATPases of smooth muscle were studied. It was concluded that smooth muscle expresses at least two different Ca2+-transport ATPases. One is present in the plasma membrane with an Mr of 140-130 kDa it is stimulated by calmodulin and it could be purified by affinity chromatography on immobilized calmodulin. This ATPase could be reconstituted in artificial membrane vesicles that were then able to catalyze an ATP-dependent Ca2+-uptake. This Ca2+-transport ATPase could also be stimulated by partial proteolysis and by negatively charged phospholipids. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were found to inhibit this ATPase and concomitantly the Ca2+-transport specifically in plasma membranes and not in the endoplasmic reticulum. This plasma-membrane Ca2+ pump from smooth muscle is controlled by cGMP via phosphorylation of a phosphatidylinositol kinase which phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol to phosphatidylinositol-monophosphate for which a specific binding site exists on the Ca2+-transport ATPase. The catalytic phosphoprotein intermediate of this ATPase can be easily demonstrated and this forms a highly sensitive method to detect the presence of the ATPase in different smooth muscles and even in non-muscle sources as the kidney. A second type of Ca2+ pump with an Mr of 100 kDa is found in smooth-muscle endoplasmic reticulum. By means of its catalytic phosphointermediate this pump could be characterized as similar to the cardiac/slow muscle isoform of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pumps, but different from the fast skeletal-muscle isoform. Immunological studies confirmed this conclusion. This endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump in smooth muscle is regulated by cAMP and cGMP via phosphorylation of phospholamban. Once Ca2+ is accumulated in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, it can be bound to calsequestrin. The calsequestrin of smooth muscle appears to be a similar isoform as that found in cardiac muscle. The Ca2+-transport ATPases were found to be inhibited by fluoroaluminate complexes without the involvement of GTP-binding proteins.